bARABie – Hard Hitting Facts

February 4, 2007

Boycott Jews

Filed under: Uncategorized — barabie @ 7:35 pm

One of the most effective policies against the apartheid regime of South Africa was the international boycott campaign, although we should go one step further and boycott ALL jewish goods and services whether they come from israel or any other country.

Here is a few links to websites which promote the boycott.

Boycott

Boycott

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3 Comments »

  1. Great news, asshole. The barbie doll was invented by a Jew named Ruth Handler.

    So you can boycott yourself now- change your name and entire identity.

    Comment by Anonymous — February 4, 2007 @ 7:58 pm

  2. Some of the more notable Jewish contributions to the medical and biological sciences in the modern era are listed below. (The names of non-Jewish scientists mentioned in the accompanying discussion have been denoted with the superscript “+” in order to avoid confusion.)

    * The invention of local anesthesia by Carl Koller and the discovery of Novocaine by Alfred Einhorn.

    * The discovery that pancreatic dysfunction is the cause of diabetes by Oskar Minkowski (together with Joseph von Mering+) and the subsequent discovery that this dysfunction involves a deficiency in the hormonal secretions of the islets of Langerhans by Moses Barron. The work of the Canadian team that isolated insulin (Banting+, Best+, Collip+, and Macleod+) was based on these two prior discoveries.

    * The introduction of the side-chain theory of antibody formation by Paul Ehrlich, which has evolved into clonal selection theory, the central paradigm of modern immunology. Ehrlich shared the 1908 Nobel Prize with Élie Metchnikoff* for their independent contributions to immunology. Ehrlich is also considered to be the founder of modern chemotherapeutic medicine. His development of Salvarsan (1909) and Neosalvarsan (1911) constituted the first effective treatment for syphilis and, in the words of Sir Alexander Fleming+, “the beginning – and a magnificent beginning – of bacterial chemotherapy.”8

    * The discovery of the ABO and other human blood groups and of the Rh factor by Karl Landsteiner. (The M, N, and P blood groups were co-discovered with Philip Levine and the Rh factor was co-discovered with Alexander Wiener). Landsteiner received the 1930 Nobel Prize for this work; he is also considered to be one of the giants of immunology, having made major contributions to the understanding of the chemical basis of antigen-antibody interaction.

    * The isolation and development of penicillin by Sir Ernst Chain. Chain shared the 1945 Nobel Prize for this work with Sir Alexander Fleming+ and Sir Howard Florey+. It was Chain who recognized the potential of Fleming’s+ nearly forgotten discovery of the antibacterial properties of Penicillium molds (one of many agents then known to have such properties). Chain, a biochemist, was able to isolate the active antibacterial substance, viz., penicillin, and to work out its molecular structure. Using samples that Chain produced, Chain and Florey+ demonstrated penicillin’s stability, nontoxicity, and effectiveness against staphylococcal, streptococcal, and clostridial infections in laboratory animals and humans.

    * The development of streptomycin by Selman Waksman. Waksman received the 1952 Nobel Prize for this work, which created the first antibiotic (a term that he introduced) effective against tuberculosis, for which (in combination with other drugs) it remains a therapeutic mainstay.

    * The isolation of cortisone by Tadeus Reichstein. Reichstein shared the 1950 Nobel Prize with Edward Kendall+ and Philip Hench+. Reichstein and Kendall+ were recognized for having independently isolated and characterized the hormones of the adrenal cortex.

    * The chemical synthesis of cortisone for large-scale production was achieved independently by the chemists Carl Djerassi and Percy Julian+.

    * The invention of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) by Charles Gerhardt. Aspirin is an artificially modified form of salicylic acid, a naturally occurring substance that can be obtained from the bark of willow trees, whose analgesic properties have been known since antiquity. Salicylic acid is, however, very poorly tolerated by the digestive system, which greatly limits its medicinal value. The original proposal to reduce its toxicity through acetylation, and the first synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid was the work of Charles Frédéric Gerhardt. Although Gerhardt’s 1853 synthesis apparently failed to yield acetylsalicylic acid of sufficient purity to be medicinally useful, the basic idea behind aspirin was his. The first successful synthesis of pure acetylsalicylic acid was achieved in 1897 by Felix Hoffmann+, working at F. Bayer & Co. in Germany. Recently developed evidence indicates, however, that credit for this development should have gone equally, or even predominantly, to Hoffmann’s+supervisor, Arthur Eichengrun.9

    * The discovery of prostaglandins by M. W. Goldblatt. (Also discovered independently by Ulf von Euler+.) Sir John Vane* was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1982 for demonstrating that the anti-inflammatory and analgesic action of aspirin-like drugs was via their inhibition of prostaglandin production. Vane* also discovered the vasodilator prostacyclin, which led directly to the development of the ACE inhibitors widely used in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and other vascular diseases.

    * The discovery of neurotransmitters by Otto Loewi. Loewi shared the 1936 Nobel Prize with Sir Henry Dale+ for their independent work on acetylcholine. Sir Bernard Katz and Julius Axelrod shared the 1970 Nobel Prize for advanced work on neurotransmitters. Their work led directly to the development of the class of anti-depressants that includes Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil. Axelrod was also the co-developer, with Bernard Brodie, of the pain reliever Tylenol.

    * The discovery of endorphins and enkephalins by Solomon Snyder and Hans Kosterlitz, respectively.

    * The development of Warfarin (Coumadin) anticoagulant therapy by Shepard Shapiro. Warfarin is the most commonly used anticoagulant for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes. It is also one of the most widely prescribed medications in the world. It was discovered in 1946 by Karl Paul Link+, who developed it as a rat poison. Its identification and development for use in human anticoagulant therapy resulted from the work of Shapiro in the early 1950s. Previously, in the early 1940s, Shapiro had pioneered the clinical use of the anti-clotting agent methylene dicoumarin (dicoumarol), which was also discovered by Link+.

    * The development of oral contraceptives by Gregory Pincus, Carl Djerassi, and Frank Colton.

    * The development of the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines by Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin, respectively. The discovery that the causative agent in polio was, in fact, a virus was made in 1908 by Karl Landsteiner and Erwin Popper.

    * The development of the Hepatitis-B vaccine by Baruch Blumberg and Irving Millman. Blumberg received the 1976 Nobel Prize, in part for this work.

    * The co-discovery of interferon by Alick Isaacs (in collaboration with Jean Lindenmann+). The large-scale production of recombinant interferon for medical use (a market currently in excess of $7 billion annually) is based largely on the work of Charles Weissmann and Sidney Pestka.

    * The invention of cancer chemotherapy by Louis Goodman, Alfred Gilman, and Sidney Farber. In the early 1940s, Goodman and Gilman discovered the effectiveness of nitrogen mustard in the treatment of lymphatic malignancies. In the late 1940s, Farber produced the first chemically induced remissions from leukemia using the folic acid inhibitors aminopterin and methotrexate. Eventually nitrogen mustard and methotrexate, used in combination with other anti-cancer agents, would lead to cures for many previously fatal lymphomas and leukemias, respectively.

    * The co-development of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) by Gertrude Elion, which used in combination with methotrexate and other drugs, has led to cures for most forms of childhood leukemia. Elion was also the co-developer of azathioprine (Imuran), the immunosuppressant that made organ transplants possible between individuals other than identical twins, and of acyclovir (Zovirax) for the treatment of herpes viral infections. Elion and George Hitchings+ received the 1988 Nobel Prize for their joint work.

    * The discovery and development of cisplatin by Barnett Rosenberg, which has led to a complete reversal in the prognosis for testicular cancer, a malignancy that had almost always been fatal and is now nearly 95% curable. The chemotherapeutic protocols for the use of cisplatin in the treatment and cure of testicular cancer were developed by Lawrence Einhorn (who supervised the successful treatment of Tour de France champion Lance Armstrong+).

    * The development of AZT and of protease inhibitors used in the treatment of AIDS by Jerome Horwitz and Irving Sigal, respectively.

    * The discovery of retroviruses by David Baltimore and Howard Temin. Baltimore and Temin shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for their independent discovery of these viruses, which are implicated in AIDS and in some cancers.

    * The co-discovery of oncogenes by Harold Varmus and the elucidation of their role in human cancer by Robert Weinberg, Michael Wigler, Bert Vogelstein, Arnold Levine, and others. Varmus shared the 1989 Nobel Prize with Michael Bishop+ for this work.

    * The co-development of monoclonal antibodies by César Milstein. Milstein shared the 1984 Nobel Prize with Georges Köhler+ for this work.

    * The elucidation of the biochemistry of cellular metabolism by Otto Warburg*, Otto Meyerhof, Gustav Embden, Jacob Parnas, Sir Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann, Herman Kalckar, Carl Neuberg, Gerty Cori, Konrad Bloch, and others. This includes much of the basic work on glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway), the urea cycle, the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle), the pentose phosphate pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation and the role of ATP, as well as significant contributions to the characterization of glycogen and fatty acid metabolism. Warburg*, Meyerhof, Krebs, Lipmann, Cori, and Bloch all received Nobel Prizes.

    * The invention of radioisotopic tracer techniques by George de Hevesy, Friedrich Paneth, Rudolf Schoenheimer, David Rittenberg, Martin Kamen, William Hassid, and Samuel Ruben. Hevesy and Paneth introduced the general technique, for which Hevesy won the 1943 Nobel Prize in chemistry; Kamen and Ruben discovered the long-lived carbon-14 radioisotope, which has had widespread application in biology (and is also the basis of radiocarbon dating). Melvin Calvin employed carbon-14 to elucidate the so-called dark reactions of photosynthesis, for which he was awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize in chemistry. (Other Nobel Prize winners who made important contributions to the understanding of photosynthesis include Richard Willstätter, Otto Warburg*, and James Franck.)

    * The invention of radioimmunoassay by Rosalyn Yalow and Solomon Berson, which has revolutionized clinical and research practice in such fields as endocrinology and blood banking. The technique, which can be made exquisitely sensitive to trace amounts (nano- and pico-molar concentrations) of specific blood substances, is employed in measuring the levels of most hormones, screening donated blood for hepatitis-B virus, and in allergy and drug level testing. Yalow received the Nobel Prize in 1977 for this work. (Berson died in 1972.)

    *
    The determination of key components of the experimental basis for the double helix model of DNA by Phoebus Levene, Erwin Chargaff, and Rosalind Franklin. In 1929, Levene discovered that DNA contains a sugar called deoxyribose and that it consists of a chain of what he termed “nucleotides,” units composed of the deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four purine or pyrimidine bases. (The purine and pyrimidine molecular base constituents of DNA were discovered by the German biochemist Albrecht Kossel+.) Chargaff showed that the four bases were present in specific pairwise ratios (adenine=thymine and guanine=cytosine), correcting Levene’s earlier, incorrect view that all four bases were present in equal proportions. Finally, Rosalind Franklin’s x-ray crystallographic studies of DNA provided the clear evidence for a double helical structure. The theoretical model of Watson+ and Crick+ was largely based on the experimental data provided by the aforementioned chemical and structural analyses.

    * The breaking of the genetic code by Marshall Nirenberg. Nirenberg and Har Gobind Khorana+ shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for their independent determinations of the code.

    * The co-invention of gene splicing by Stanley N. Cohen. Cohen and Herbert Boyer’s+ invention opened up the new field of genetic engineering. Cohen is a recipient of both the US National Medal of Science and the US National Medal of Technology. Other major contributors to genetic engineering include Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, and Daniel Nathans, all of whom received Nobel Prizes for their work.

    * The discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) by I. I. Rabi. Rabi received the 1944 Nobel Prize in physics for the demonstration of NMR in molecular beams. Felix Bloch shared the 1952 Nobel Prize in physics with Edward Purcell+ for their independent inventions of condensed matter NMR spectroscopy, which is important in biomolecular structure studies, as well as being the basis of the MRI diagnostic imaging technique.10

    * The invention of the sonogram by Robert Rines.

    * The invention of the flexible endoscope by Basil Hirschowitz, which has revolutionized surgery by greatly reducing the complexity and invasiveness of many surgical procedures. (This work, undertaken in the mid-1950s, led to the production of the first glass-clad optical fibers, which later revolutionized modern telecommunications.)

    * The co-invention of LASIK eye surgery by Samuel Blum (together with Rangaswamy Srinivasan+ and James Wynne+).

    * The invention of phacoemulsification cataract surgery by Charles Kelman, which is the technique most widely used for cataract removal worldwide. (More than one hundred million such operations have been performed.) It has revolutionized the procedure by completely eliminating the need for hospitalization, which had previously averaged one week. Intraocular lens implantation, a regular adjunct to this surgery, was also pioneered by Kelman.

    * The invention of the cardiac defibrillator, external pacemaker, and cardiac monitor by Paul Zoll. Zoll (and, independently, Wilson Greatbatch+ ) later invented the implantable cardiac pacemaker. Michel Mirowski and Morton Mower were two of the four inventors of the automatic, implantable cardiac defibrillator.

    * The invention of the Heimlich Maneuver by Henry Heimlich.

    * The co-invention of the basic technique used worldwide for the controlled chlorination of drinking water supplies by Abel Wolman. Wolman and Linn Enslow’s+ invention resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of such waterborne diseases as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid fever; as such, it was arguably the single most important contribution to public health in the twentieth century. Wolman received both the Lasker Award for Public Service in 1960 and the US National Medal of Science in 1974. The Abel Wolman Municipal Building, one of the largest buildings in Baltimore, MD (where he taught at Johns Hopkins), was named in his honor.

    Comment by Anonymous — February 4, 2007 @ 8:00 pm

  3. Btw thank you for the inspiration for this post.

    Comment by bARABie — February 4, 2007 @ 8:05 pm


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